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To understand the Japanese film industry’s reaction to the coming of sound, it is necessary to look at it in the context of the country’s relationship to performance arts and particularly, to the art of Katsuben. While Japan’s official transition to sound did not come until the year 1935 (and even at that time, silent films continued to play a prominent role), some have argued that sound had in fact existed in Japanese films and foreign films distributed in Japan since the turn of the century.

This argument is not a new one and has also been made for silent films in general, since actors and actresses had always “spoken” in films before the coming of sound. However, in the case of Japan, the argument takes on a new dimension as illustrated by the art of the Katsuben. As we will see, many factors delayed the arrival of sound in Japan, but there is little doubt that the Katsuben, and the influence they exercised throughout the first thirty years of the industry, was the strongest of these factors.

The art of Katsuben can simply be described as the art of narration. Referred to as Benshi[1] in the West, the Katsuben would come to dominate the Japanese film industry until the coming of sound, a coming they opposed and tried to delay as much as possible. The need for Katsuben arose with the arrival of the first foreign films in Japan in the last years of the 19th century. These films opened a window to the world for Japanese viewers. For the first time, many Japanese could see and experience what they had started hearing about since Commodore Perry forced Japan to open its borders to trade with the outside world in 1853. But these foreign films also brought with them pictures and visualizations of new things and events, of which the Japanese had no understanding. Closed off for centuries, this was the first time many Japanese viewers got a glimpse of the rest of the world. Assistance and explanations were therefore necessary to the proper understanding and enjoyment of these pictures. In addition, the Japanese mind is one that has an interest in things technical. It demands that the mechanics of a device be clearly explained and displayed. ‘Japan has a theatrical convention of treating the necessary mechanics as a part of the performance itself.’[2] Far from being satisfied simply with what they saw, the Japanese audience therefore demanded that the inner workings of the projector and that all technical aspects of the film be explained. Finally, these early films, foreign initially, Japanese shortly after, did not yet have the continuous narrative that would later characterize most films and were often made up of short, independent clips. The Japanese audience soon overcame the initial awe of the purely visual and quickly demanded some form of narrative, which these movies could not yet provide.

Thus arose the need for Katsuben, people who would stand next to the screen, often on platforms, dressed in costumes ‘ranging from cowboy outfits to pseudo-military uniforms to Edo era clothing’[3], and would provide explanations of what the audience was looking at. They would also fill the gaps between clips by providing stories relating to these clips and would aid in making the overall experience longer since most of these early films lasted only a few minutes. It was in the exhibitors’ interest to make the showings longer as the prices of tickets were quite high but the number of movies that could be shown was fairly low. ‘Unlike in other countries, the very first motion pictures in Japan were not the theater of the poor but rather of the well-to-do who were interested in the Occident.’[4] Katsuben quickly became popular and analogous with the movie going experience. They started using their oratory skills towards dialogue, rhetoric, moral discussions as well as philosophy. What started as a need for simple explanations turned into an art form as films became dependent on the Katsuben and their talent at prose, narration, storytelling and improvisation.

‘It is known that many of them could make clever references to classical literary sources, and some could even compose lyrical descriptions of a character’s emotions or of a picturesque natural scene within the five- and seven- syllable framework of classical Japanese poetry’.[5]

The Katsuben became more important than the actor or the director and it was not uncommon for them to be paid higher wages. Often, the names of Katsuben would appear first on the film posters and would become, for a time, the most marketable aspect of a film in Japan. ‘Eventually the Benshi rather than the film became the box-office attraction.’[6]

In the first decade of the 20th century, several other countries had their own form of Katsuben but this quickly faded and had all but disappeared by 1910. The fact that it endured and grew in popularity in Japan can be attributed to the Japanese’ relationship (and history) to performance arts, and especially to what Joseph L. Anderson refers to as ‘commingled media’.[7] A rough approximation of ‘commingled media’ would be today’s multimedia, which consists of several media mixed together to provide an experience that can only be achieved through the intersecting of these different disciplines. Throughout history, Japanese performance arts relied on the combination of visuals (scrolls, paintings, dancing, stage) and audio performances of storytellers whose skills often upstaged the pictures shown. Bunraku, the Japanese traditional puppet theater, was always accompanied by a musician and a narrator who would not only speak the dialogues but would also ‘narrate the drama’.[8] ‘The classical Noh and Kabuki (theatres) are commingled dramatic forms in which the storytelling of narrators is joined by actors’ enacting scenes on stage.’[9] And a storyteller also narrated the magic lantern shows called Utsushie. In the 1910’s, a new form of mixed media took hold, named Rensageki or chained drama. Here the stage play was combined with film. When the film part came on, the stage actors would recite the dialogue, often accompanied by a Katsuben. However, ‘this form would die after 1917’[10] and during the period around World War I, Katsuben were mainly involved in 3 types of films:

- Foreign films, accompanied by a single Katsuben whose role was not only to explain but also to adapt and to ‘nationalize the imported work in ways that tend to suppress its foreign origins…a cultural intervention which continued the centuries-old practice of reforming imports to Japanese sensibilities’ [11]

- Films that were exact replica of a stage act

- Chained drama
After the First World War arose a trend towards a more independent, original and more Japanese cinema. These reformists were directors who wanted to break free of the reliance on the past and on the Katsuben both which, in their views, were keeping cinema in a feudal and archaic state, unable to break lose from its past. These new directors who came from industries outside of cinema, favored more advanced and modern film techniques as pioneered at the time by D.W. Griffith. But these techniques were still associated with foreign movies and the Katsuben were more than willing to encourage this ‘division along national lines’.[12] However, the introduction of these new methods, even if only moderately successful, did contribute considerably to the growth the Japanese film industry was experiencing at the time. Cinema was finally starting to be treated as an art form in Japan and to get the respect it deserved. And as a result of this growth, the Katsuben emerged even stronger. By 1920, ‘there were 750 male and 90 female Katsuben in the Tokyo area’.[13] Throughout the next decade, their reputation became such that some of the more famous Katsuben began to enjoy quite a large amount of freedom in their performance. Often viewers would get a completely different experience of the same film depending on which Katsuben was performing that night or in that location. They would offer their own views and interpretations of the film, and occasionally dismissed the scripts given to them by the production companies in favor of their own version. Such was the influence of the most powerful Katsuben that the film companies started consulting them during script development and some directors even admitted to pacing their films to the speaking style of their favorite Katsuben[14]. It is likely that the fact that intertitles were not used in Japanese films until 1920 is a direct result of that influence. Throughout the 1920s, most Katsuben specialized in one or more of three main film genres:

- Jidai-Geki (Japanese period films, originally based on Kabuki. After 1921, Chambara, the sword-fighting genre, would become strongly associated with Jidai-Geki. Later influenced by the more realistic Shinkokugeki movement).

- Gendai-Geki (Japanese films with contemporary settings, based on the Shimpa theatrical style and later influenced by the more realistic Shingeki and Shomingeki movements).

- Yoga (Foreign films). ‘From the mid-1920s, the market share of foreign films continued to decrease even as total movie attendance was increasing. Japanese movies became dominant in the domestic market by 1925 and held on their major share until the 1970s’[15]

The golden age of the Katsuben came towards the end of the 1920’s, and coincided with that of the period film genre. By 1927, there were ‘6818 Katsuben throughout the Japanese Empire’[16] and their status and power made them react fairly slowly to the coming of sound. Since most of the foreign films showed in Japan at that time were only part talkies, the Katsuben were able to continue with their work without feeling overly threatened. However, the arrival of 100% talkies did pose a clear and real danger. Many reacted by turning off the sound tracks during their performance. This occurred for instance during the initial showings of Von Sternberg’s The Blue Angel in 1931. But even without or with only minimal sound, foreign talkies proved very successful and showed Japanese producers and exhibitors not only that talkies were to be taken seriously but also that they may have some strong commercial value. The audiences thus started demanding talkies and the Katsuben’s resistance would soon prove futile. The plot of these talkies revolved around the dialogue and thus it could not be removed without the overall experience suffering, regardless of how good the Katsuben was. In 1931, Von Sternberg’s Morocco became the first foreign film to be subtitled in Japanese, thereby excluding the Katsuben from the performance. Interestingly, dubbing would never become very popular in Japan and subtitles remain today the method of choice for foreign films. Due to the success of The Blue Angel and Morocco, Japanese producers finally reacted to the coming of sound and started increasing their sound on film production. The Katsuben went on strike and ‘in 1932, there were 203 Katsuben strikes against talkies’.[17] But these massive efforts by the Katsuben to stop the coming of sound in Japan, so successful in keeping their art alive in the 1910s and 1920s, would be to no avail this time. Sound was here to stay and Katsuben started losing their jobs. Some adapted, staying in the film industry as actors, writers or even producers, while some ended up working in factories or in theatre troops. Others, like Akira Kurosawa’s brother, committed suicide. The ones who managed to continue their art for a few years benefited from other factors that slowed down the coming of sound. In 1937, ‘there were still 3695 active Katsuben in Japan’.[18] But it was clear that their numbers were fast decreasing and that the age of the Benshi had come to an end.

With the Katsuben, sound had therefore accompanied films in Japan since the very beginning. With this dominance came the desire by several film production companies throughout the years to break free from the dependence on the Katsuben. As early as 1905, M Pathe, Japan’s third largest production company at the time (the name was blatantly stolen from the European company) had experimented with sound synchronization on record (poor technology and the Katsuben’s intervention ended these experiments quickly). Kaoru Osanai’ Dawn made in 1927 (sound on film) and Masahiro Makino’s Modori Hashi, made in 1929 (sound on disc) were both early experiments into the realm of sound by companies (Showa Kinema and Nihon Toki) that had been created specifically for the purpose of making sound films in light of the developments taking place in the US and Europe. But these early attempts failed and the coming of sound in Japan was delayed for a few more years. Aside from the already discussed influence of the Katsuben, which was perhaps the greatest reason of all, several factors contributed to this delay:

- The technology itself was very expensive and the low profits and undercapitalization of the Japanese industry meant that any new expensive technology was slow to be adopted. Equipping the theatres with sound compatible facilities was too costly for most exhibitors

- The main production companies of the late 1920s failed to cooperate in the face of the new technology and were not able to come up with reliable systems. Each production company had its own reaction and views on the coming of sound, reactions that were very much based on these companies’ directions in filmmaking

- Sound brought the problem of dialects and diversity in the actors’ backgrounds. In many early Japanese sound films, the various dialects and speech patterns, which are characteristic of the Japanese language, created an experience that lacked unity and coherence. While acceptable for Gendai-geki films (contemporary drama), it was not for Jidai-Geki films (period films), since they required a standard form of dialogue and “correct” Japanese. This ‘may be the reason why contemporary dramas are the only films considered good examples of the early Japanese talkie’.[19] Daisuke Ito, who directed Tange Sazen in 1933, spoke of his ‘difficulties with the lack of uniformity in the actor’s delivery of dialogue’[20]

The development of sound in Japan was indeed very much connected to each production company’s philosophy towards filmmaking and the movie genres that they endorsed. Nikkatsu, today Japan’s oldest film company, was formed in 1910 when Japan’s four largest production companies of the time merged to become the Japan Cinematograph Company (renamed to Nikkatsu in 1912). Its history is deeply rooted in the Jidai-Geki genre (period drama), a genre it continued to endorse through the arrival of sound, perhaps with even more fervor. Nikkatsu’s early attempts at sound were not very successful and sound was used mainly in a linear and conservative fashion, that is, strictly for synchronous dialogues. Kenji Mizoguchi’s Hometown, a 1930 Nikkatsu production, was a part talkie and used the De Forest Phonofilm system (the American sound on disc system had been shown in Japan in 1925). But the De Forest system, also known in Japan as the Minatokii system, developed a reputation for being an inferior product. Even though Hometown had taken sound a step further than its predecessors through the use of sound effects and by relying quite a lot on songs, it was still mostly a silent film and received only moderate success as audiences were not ready to replace the experience of the Katsuben with a less than perfect sound substitute. Nikkatsu was further hindered by the fact that it increased its prices by 50% per ticket for its sound films[21]. Poor technology and poor sales would thus keep Nikkatsu away from further sound experiments until 1932 when it produced its first successful sound on film talkie, The Timely Mediator. It is also around that time that Nikkatsu started using the Western Electric sound system.

Shochiku was formed in 1920, and set out immediately to make more modern movies than Nikkatsu. ‘The main purpose of this company will be the production of artistic films resembling the latest and most flourishing styles of the Occidental cinema…”[22] It therefore focused on the more contemporary Gendai-Geki genre, with women as the main target market (this targeting of women by Shochiku and men by Nikkatsu remains in effect today). But as a surge of nationalism and xenophobia rose in the country, Shochiku struggled throughout the 1920’s. And after the earthquake of 1923, the public developed a ‘sudden and pronounced taste for escapism’[23], a trend which would continue throughout the early years of the depression and would result at the end of the decade in the golden age of the period films and of the Katsuben. Fortunately for Shochiku, this golden age would push the period drama into deeper romantic directions and would give rise to a renewed desire by audiences for realism. Shochiku encouraged a more modern approach to film making, which, coupled with its focus on contemporary drama, made it the early winner in the conversion to sound[24] (many Shochiku directors had initially been reluctant to embrace sound, and in many cases, did not want to work with it – one can see here a similarity with Rene Claire for instance, whose initial reluctance to embrace sound is perhaps what in fact “forced” him to use sound wisely, and thus, more intelligently). Gosho’s The Neighbor’s Wife and Mine made in 1931 and produced by Shochiku, is considered to be the first all talkie Japanese film. It employed the Tsuchihashi sound on film system and used sound creatively (off-screen sound and asynchronism principles) by bringing a level of everyday-conversation realism to the dialogues, which contrasted with the monotonous, robotic voices used in previous movies. ‘Gosho knew from the first that film must always be film and must not attempt to be recorded theatre.’[25] Gosho’s creative use of sound in this film is also due to the fact that the dialogues are used sparsely and wisely since for some Shochiku directors, the coming of sound actually meant a freedom from sound. ‘Benshi banished, the film could revel in especially recorded silence.’[26] The Neighbor’s Wife was a light contemporary comedy, a fairly new genre at the time. It proved an ideal match for the use of sound and became one of Shochiku’s specialties. Indeed, the contemporary comedy fulfilled a need for a type of picture with themes different from that offered by silent films, ‘which had always mostly drawn on tragedy and the Japanese’ notorious predilection for the unhappy ending’.[27] Sound thus helped the Japanese film industry move away from the tragic towards a more realistic film where the men were more ordinary and dealt with situations in more real life-like terms. Even period film directors of the time such as Sadao Yamanaka made their samurai more human and more in touch with the problems of the common people (it is interesting to note that many Katsuben found drama easier to work with than comedy). ‘In 1932 alone, of the 45 talkies made (out of 400 features), 30 were Shochiku.’[28]

Throughout the 1930s, the films produced by Shochiku and Nikkatsu (Toho would become a major rival around 1935) fell into four categories:

- ‘Silent films accompanied by live Benshi narration and live music performed in the theatre

- Silent films with a “sound band” of recorded music and sound effects and written intertitles to convey the dialogue

- Sound films with a post-synchronized “sound band” of recorded music, sound effects and narration

- Full talkies, with actors speaking synchronized dialogue, mixed with recorded sound and music onto the soundtrack’[29]

But while talkies became more prominent throughout the decade, silent films continued to be made and appreciated and ‘in 1937, two years after talkies became the dominant form of domestic production, one-fifth of all new Japanese films were still silent’.[30] The influence of the Katsuben’s continued to be felt, and the audiences, while learning to appreciate talkies, were in no real rush to partake with the experiences of the past. The Japanese had mastered the art of silent cinema in the late 1920s and it is not until after WWII that their talkies would reach a comparable level of craft and expertise.
Copyright © Eric Mahleb 2003

[1] ‘A vague term meaning speaker or orator. Katsuben clearly denotes the person who performed with motion pictures.’ Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[2] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[3] Linda C. Ehrlich, ‘Talking about Pictures: The Art of the Benshi’, Cinemaya: The Asian Film Quarterly, spring 1995 Volume 27 Page 34.

[4] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[5] Linda C. Ehrlich, ‘Talking about Pictures: The Art of the Benshi’, Cinemaya: The Asian Film Quarterly, spring 1995 Volume 27 Page 34.

[6] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[7] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[8] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[9] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[10] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[11] Linda C. Ehrlich, ‘Talking about Pictures: The Art of the Benshi’, Cinemaya: The Asian Film Quarterly, Spring 1995 Volume 27 Page 34.

[12] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[13] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[14] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[15] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[16] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[17] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[18] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

[19] Kenji Iwamoto, ‘Sound in the Early Japanese Talkies’, translated by Lisa Spalding, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (University Press 1992), pp. 313-327.

[20] Kenji Iwamoto, ‘Sound in the Early Japanese Talkies’, translated by Lisa Spalding, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (University Press 1992), pp. 313-327.

[21] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[22] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[23] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[24] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[25] Donald Richie (ed), The Japanese Movie. Revised edition (Kodansha International, 1982)

[26] Donald Richie (ed), The Japanese Movie. Revised edition (Kodansha International, 1982)

[27] Donald Richie (ed), The Japanese Movie. Revised edition (Kodansha International, 1982)

[28] Joseph L. Anderson and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), Foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982).

[29] Freda Freiberg, ‘The Transition to Sound in Japan’, in O’Regan T. & Shoesmith B. (eds), History on/and/in Film (Perth: History & Film Association of Australia, 1987), pp. 76-80.

[30] Joseph L. Anderson, ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311.

Bibliography

Anderson Joseph L., ‘Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts’, in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.259-311

Anderson Joseph L. and Richie Donald (eds), The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (expanded edition), foreword by Akira Kurosawa (Princeton University press 1982)

Ehrlich Linda C., ‘Talking about Pictures: The Art of the Benshi’, Cinemaya: The Asian Film Quarterly, Spring 1995 Volume 27 Page 34.

Freiberg Freda, ‘The Transition to Sound in Japan’, in O’Regan T. & Shoesmith B. (eds), History on/and/in Film (Perth: History & Film Association of Australia, 1987), pp. 76-80.

Freiberg Freda, ‘Comprehensive connections: the film industry, the theatre and the state in the early Japanese cinema’ in http://www.latrobe.edu.au/screeningthepast/firstrelease/fr1100/fffr11c.htm

Iwamoto Kenji, ‘Sound in the Early Japanese Talkies’, translated by Lisa Spalding in Arthur Nolletti, Jr and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema (Indiana University Press 1992), pp.313 to 327

Richie Donald (ed), A Hundred Years of Japanese Film. Foreword by Paul Schrader (Kodansha International 2001)

Richie Donald (ed), The Japanese Movie. Revised edition (Kodansha International 1982)

Sharp Jasper and Arnold Mike, ‘Forgotten Fragments: An Introduction to Japanese Silent Cinema’ in http://www.midnighteye.com/features/silentfilm_pt2.shtml

Sharp Jasper, ‘100 Years of Japanese Cinema’ in http://www.midnighteye.com/features/100years.shtml

The Japanese Silent Film website: http://www.infoasia.co.jp/subdir/matsudae.html

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3 Responses to “The Art of the Katsuben in Early Japanese Cinema”

  1. [...] Unlike Kurosawa’s previous efforts which relied on the traditional Jidai-Geki and Chambara (sword fighting period films), Ikuru depicts the Japan of the 1950s and shows that Kurosawa was a versatile and skillfull director who was able to craft magnificent and emotionally charged films as well as action driven pieces. [...]

  2. [...] older yet hidden gem of a storytelling form is Katsuben, a Japanese form of film narration during the silent film era. This came from the Japanese [...]

  3. Pointing out that it is bullshit that a professional fighter lose a win on his record and $130,000 because he smoke some weed is one thing. Calling someone “the biggest Fag in the world” because someone is giving them money is another.

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